Capillaria sp. in a cat
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae
Capillaria sp. in a cat
Autor Correspondente: Marciélen Pagnoncelli | [email protected]
Palavras-chave: feline, urine, urinalysis, parasite, capillariasis, capillaria sp
Background: The family Capillariidae includes several species that parasite a wide variety of domestic and wild animals.
Species such as Capillaria plica and Capillaria feliscati are found in the bladder, kidneys and ureters of domestic and wild
carnivores. These nematodes are not still well known in Brazil, but have a great importance for studies of urinary tract diseases
in domestic animals, mainly cats. The parasiteâ€™s life cycle is still unclear, may be direct or involve a paratenic host, such as the
earthworm. Eggs are laid in the bladder and thus are discarded to the environment, where the larvae develop and are ingested
by hosts. It is believed that the ingestion of soil and material contaminated with infective larvae derived from the decomposition
of dead earthworms may be an alternative pathway for infection of animals. It has been reported in dogs a pre-patent period
between 61 and 88 days. In Germany, the prevalence of C. plica in domestic cats was about 6%, with higher incidence in males,
whereas in wild cats the prevalence of C. plica and C. feliscati was 7%, also with higher incidence in males. In Brazil, the first
report of Capillaria sp. in a domestic cat was only done in 2008. Thus, the purpose of this report is to describe the importance
of urinalysis in cases of suspected capillariasis and alert small animals clinicians on the occurrence of this disease as a cause of
lower urinary tract disease feline (LUTDF) in the country.
Case: It was attended at the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (HVU-UFSM), a male adult feline,
mixed breed, presenting urinary incontinence and dysuria. We requested additional tests, including urinalysis, which was
observed during the examination of sediment, eggs similars to Capillaria sp. The species was not determined due to the
morphological similarity between the eggs of Capillaria plica and Capillaria feliscati. The results of the serum biochemistry
were adequate for the feline species, while the CBC showed only eosinophilia. The animal was treated with a single dose of
ivermectin (0.2 mg / kg SC), but the animal dead 21 days after initial treatment.
Discussion: Cases of Capillaria sp. in the bladder of dogs and cats are rarely reported because, in most cases, clinical signs are
not observed due to low parasite load that they show. However, when there are clinical signs can be observed polaciuria,
dysuria, cystitis, and inappropriate urination. Infections are usually self limiting, however, in the presence of clinical signs,
treatment should be instituted. In the present case, the animal had only urinary incontinence and dysuria. The collection of the
urine sample through cystocentesis is indicated in suspected cases of capillariasis, to avoid contamination of urine with feces
and eggs of Trichuris sp. what may lead to a misdiagnosis. The urinary sediment is a qualitative test for diagnosis of this
infection. Although the infection by the different species of Capillaria be uncommon, it is important that clinicians be alert for
refractory cases of LUTDF that donâ€™t answer to the conventional treatment, performing urinalysis for possible occurrence of
Capillaria sp. eggs in the urinary sediment.